Pope Francis apologized to Indigenous leaders in July and asked forgiveness, “for not only for the offenses of the church herself, but also for crimes committed against the native peoples during the so-called conquest of America.” President Obama in 2009 signed a Native American Apology Resolution that was tacked onto the defense appropriations bill. In 2008 the Canadian government apologized and created a Truth and Reconciliation Commission for the victims of the residential school system. What is the purpose of an official apology? Is it enough? Are apologies a step toward reconciliation? Should they come with concrete obligations?
Chase Iron Eyes (Lakota) – South Dakota counsel for the Lakota People’s Law Project
Theodore Fontaine (Ojibwe First Nations) – survivor and author of Broken Circle: The Dark Legacy of Indian Residential Schools: a Memoir
Break Music: 12 Gauge Connect (song) Young Bird (artist) Dedicated (album)